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Instilling self-esteem is thought by many to ensure well-adjusted, respectful, motivated kids who are not only loving and lovable, but who accept criticism, exhibit self-control, and challenge themselves, too. Indeed, several websites are dedicated to its promotion, and May is actually Self-Esteem Month, Boost Your Self-Esteem Month, and/or National Teen Self-Esteem Month—take your pick.
Meanwhile, the stated purpose of The National Association for Self-Esteem is “to fully integrate self-esteem into the fabric of American society so that every individual, no matter what their age or background, experiences personal worth and happiness.”
And such efforts have been very successful, with countless, well-meaning parents and teachers joining in for kids’ sake.
As a result, competition is downplayed, praise is plentiful—deserved or not—and feeling good is the goal . . .
• Many schools have done away with honoring a valedictorian at graduation ceremonies—or they’ve named more than one.
• Intelligence is no longer the sole factor in determining giftedness. Indeed, according to Pennsylvania law, “A person with an IQ score lower than 130 may be admitted to gifted programs when other educational criteria in the profile of the person strongly indicate gifted ability.”
• Grading scales have taken a hit, too. Many schools now use a grading scale where 90 to 100 constitutes an A, and so on. Only a few call anything lower than a 64 an F; most stick with 59 for that.
• Red pens are out, replaced by pinks and violets, so as to be less disheartening.
• Homework has come under the gun, too, with parents complaining that too much homework is being assigned. As a result, teachers are told to cut back—even when it comes to our gifted students.
• To soften failure, some districts insist that teachers record nothing less than a grade of 50% on a student’s report card, regardless of his/her actual and lower percentage.
• Countless sports organizations now hand out trophies to every kid on the team, saying, “We believe everyone is a winner.”
• Cars nowadays sport “My child is an honor roll student at . . .” bumper stickers, spreading the praise near and far.
And where has this feel-good mentality gotten us?
Says Minneapolis author and pediatrician Dr. Ernest Swihart, “It’s had serious repercussions. These young adults who were raised in the 80’s, now in their 20’s and in the workplace—those who received praise, rewards, and prizes for everything they did without working very hard—often are very entitled and self-absorbed, and they don’t understand not being promoted, they don’t understand not even being hired, and they don’t understand not getting praised every day.”
Meanwhile . . .
1. According to a University of California, Irvine survey, one-third of the students said they expected B’s just for attending lectures; 40% said they deserved a B just for completing the required reading.
Said a senior at the University of Maryland, “If you put all the effort you have and get a C, what is the point? If someone goes to every class and reads every chapter in the book and does everything the teacher asks of them and more, then they should be getting an A like their effort deserves. If your maximum effort can only be average in a teacher’s mind, then something is wrong.”
2. Regarding a recent Brookings Institution report, journalist Jay Matthews wrote, “Countries such as the United States that embrace self-esteem, joy, and real-world relevance in learning mathematics are lagging behind others that don’t promote all that self-regard.” According to that report, only 6% of surveyed Korean 8th graders feel confident in their math scores compared with 39% of our students—yet Korean students always outscore ours on international assessments.
Indeed, Jean Twenge and W. Keith Campell, authors of The Narcissism Epidemic, say, “We’ve built up the confidence of our kids, but in that process, we’ve created a generation of hot-house flowers puffed with a disproportionate sense of self-worth and without the resiliency skills they need when Mommy and Daddy can’t fix something.”
So now the question is, have you ever . . .
1. Complained that your child has too much homework?
2. Praised your child for the very slightest reason?
3. Made excuses for your child’s poor showing on a test or assignment?
4. Requested that your child retake a test to improve a grade?
5. Gone out of your way to make your child feel good about him/herself?
6. Typed a paper, done an assignment, or helped your child complete a project for a good grade?
7. Questioned a teacher for disciplining your child?
8. Refused to have your child to serve a detention?
9. Asked that a teacher offer extra credit and bonus points to bolster grades?
Nodding in the affirmative to even a few of these questions suggests that you may be contributing to the problem, despite your good intentions.
Explains award-winning author Melissa Fay Greene, “When we muffle our children in a haze of supportive words and blunt their experiences of consequences, we could be making it harder for them to deal with the real world . . . We must stand back and let each child enjoy—or suffer—the rich, complicated, ambiguous experiences of his or her own life.”
Instead, applaud effort and time on task, praise only genuine accomplishment, and help your child see obstacles as opportunities, failure as feedback. As one eighth grader put it: “You never fail until you stop trying.”
That, after all, is the heart of true self-esteem.
Carol Josel is a learning specialist who worked with middle school children and their parents at the Methacton School District in Pennsylvania for more than 25 years and now supervises student teachers at both Gwynedd Mercy College and Ursinus College. Along with the booklet, 149 Parenting School-Wise Tips: Intermediate Grades & Up, and numerous articles in such publications as The Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy and Teaching Pre-K-8, she has authored three successful learning guidebooks: Getting School-Wise: A Student Guidebook, Other-Wise and School-Wise: A Parent Guidebook, and ESL Activities for Every Month of the School Year. Carol also writes for examiner.com; you can find her articles at www.examiner.com/wise-parenting-in-philadelphia/carol-josel. For more information, go to http://www.schoolwisebooks.com or contact Carol at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Listen to Dr. Mike Robinson discussion about the validity of Year Round School Calendars and Traditional School Calendars and the impact if any on student achievement. School districts around the country have begun to re-examine the benefits and challenges of extending school days and the school year. In Washington DC, D.C. Mayor Vincent Gray and schools chancellor Kaya Henderson are considering expanding the school day and school year as an attempt to improve overall test scores and increase graduation rates. Currently the school week for students attending the District of Columbia Public Schools consist of 30 hours, which according to Mayor Gray is simply no longer enough time.
Many champions of the extended school day and year believe adding more time will increase the ability of American students to compete with their global peers. Education Secretary Arne Duncan, a chief proponent of the longer school year, says American students have fallen behind the world academically. However, there are those who do not support an extended school day or school and suggest there is little to no evidence that support an improvement in academic performance. “Opponents of extended school point out that states such as Minnesota and Massachusetts steadily shine on standardized achievement tests while preserving their summer break with a post-Labor Day school start” (Julie Carr Smyth (2013).
Listen to Dr. Mike Robinson on Parent Talk Live, home of important educational discussions germane to parents and their communities. His guest will be Tina Bruno, Program Director with the Coalition for a Traditional School Calendar.
Tina Bruno is the executive director of the national advocacy organization, The Coalition for a Traditional School Calendar. Under her direction the cry of parents for a longer summer vacation has become a national issue and many states have enjoyed the passage of school start date legislation. Tina has been guest on MSNBC, CNN and Fox News and has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, USA Today, and hundreds of daily and weekly newspapers. Tina works with thousands of parent volunteers from around the nation as she educates policymakers, members of the media and voters about the negative impact of non-traditional school calendars. Tina is a graduate of The University of Northern Iowa and currently lives in San Antonio, Texas with her daughter.
Dr. Yolanda Abel
Children are one of our most precious gifts. As parents it is our responsibility to rear them well and prepare them to go out into the world and fulfill their destiny. Kahlil Gibran said it well, “Your children are not children. They are the sons and daughters of Life’s longing for itself. They come through you but not for you, And though they are with you yet they belong not to you.” With this in mind, all parents should be mindful of how they treat one another and how the parental relationship impacts the child.
So often when we think or discuss parenting of Black children in general it seems as if the focus of the conversation often becomes the plight of the single mother and bemoaning the absence of fathers. While the Black community is varied in its composition, the issue of female headed households and noncustodial dads is a real one.
The percentage of children residing in a single parent household in the U.S. was 34% in 2009. In the state of Maryland it was 34% as well. However, when you disaggregate by race, there are 67% of Black children, in the U.S., residing in single family homes. In the state of Maryland 59% of Black children are living in a single family home (Kids Count, 2011). National data informs us that almost 50% of Black children living in single family households reside with their mother, while less than 4% of Black children reside with their fathers. There are a variety of variables that impact who a child lives with and how the parents and other adults help to support the child’s overall development.
This article is focusing on mothers and fathers who are no longer in a relationship with each other, but share a child. How do people continue to work together in the best interest of the child they created? How do you navigate blended families? How do you set aside personal disappointments and keep the child at the focus of the relationship? These may not be easy questions to answer based on our personal circumstances. However, our vision must be what is best for the child we created together. How can we put our son or daughter first and provide the best possible upbringing?
It is not easy and I am not suggesting otherwise, but it is something we have to do. It is important that we promote father involve with schools and in children’s school-based lives. Children are less likely to repeat a grade, be suspended, or expelled if their nonresident fathers are involved in schools. Children are also more likely to earn A’s, enjoy school, and participate in extracurricular activities,
Father involvement with schools can make a difference for the better (Nord, 1998).
How do we do that? The mother’s relationship with the father influences his involvement with the child’s school based life. Fathers who are romantically involved with the mother of their child are more likely to be involved in their child’s school-based lives. So, what happens when parents are no longer together? The noncustodial fathers’ involvement in school-related activities is influenced by the child’s grade level, the household income, mother’s level of education, and the child support payment history (Nord, Brimhall, & West, 1997). In this instance, school-based involvement is defined as attending (a) a general school meeting, (b) attending a parent-teacher conference, (c) attending a school or class event, or (d) serving as a volunteer. So, if mom is the primary caregiver, how does dad find out about these events so he can attend, if possible?
Communication geared toward the child’s welfare needs to be a focus. Schools tend to communicate with the parent who registers the child for school and to send information to the contact address or phone number that is provided. So, if there are no legal reasons to prevent it, the contact information of the noncustodial parent should be provided as well. As the custodial parent we should also communicate ourselves with the noncustodial parent around issues that support the child we have together. Remember, children tend to have better outcomes when their noncustodial fathers are involved.
Be realistic as each of you works to support your child. While money is important in being able to provide for a child it is not everything.
A child needs parents who are physically present and active in his or her life. Encourage the noncustodial parent to attend school functions, spend quality time reading, go to community events, or any other activity that expands a child’s horizon’s and opportunities for learning.
Be together apart. Remember that each of you is responsible for the upbringing of a well adjusted and healthy child who feels capable and confident to step out into the world and give his or her best. Ideally, we need two loving parents for this to happen. Each parent contributes something unique to the child’s
life and developing perspective.
Be cautiously honest about what you say about the other parent and why the two of you are no longer
together. Remember that the child is a blend of both of you. It is hurtful to attack the other person or to tell a child that she or he is just like their “no good father”. Words have power. When talking with your friends and /or family members make sure the child cannot hear you and whatever your comments are, especially if you are angry at something the father did or did not do.
Be optimistic; parenting is one of the most challenging things a person can do. There are moments of doubt, confusion, worry, etc. throughout the parenting process whether we are single parents or cohabiting parents. By keeping our focus on the long-term goal of rearing a child who is well-adjusted and able to become a productive member of society we can make it through the hard times. How can we focus on the good as it relates to our child and his or her father? “What is the impact on
the child?” should always be the guiding question as we consider what to do or not to do.
Be consistent in your actions. Most children do well when there are consistent routines in their life. Mean what you say and say what you mean as you talk with your child and his or her father. If something happens and the routine needs to be changed, share that information with the child. Do not allow a child to wonder what she or he did wrong or why daddy doesn’t love me. Something seemingly inconsequential can have long-term negative consequences for a child.
Strive for accountability. Things do happen in life, but for the most part we need to commit to being involved in our child’s life and show up when we say we are and be on time and engage with our child. Reflect back on your own childhood, what are the fondest memories you have of your own father? If he was not a part of your life, how did that make you feel? How does it still make you feel? Did you promise yourself that you would always be there for your child? Are you keeping that promise?
Remember, it is all about the child. Fathers and mothers each have a critical role to play in the lives of their children. This is a reminder to do your part. We need to facilitate all fathers’ being a connected and integral part of their children’s lives.
Parents of special needs students must understand the most appropriate educational environment for the child to be educated. Because of state assessments and accountability, many special needs students are educated in the general education classroom. Although this placement is more common in recent years, it may not be the least restrictive environment (LRE). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 definition of LRE is “to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.” What does this statement mean? Special education students should be educated in the regular education classroom unless the disability is too severe to allow the student to achieve in the regular education environment. The purpose of this article is to provide student friendly procedures to use when determining the most appropriate environment for a student with a disability to be educated.
The process for identifying a student as having a disability is outlined by IDEA. Once the evaluation and eligibility process is complete and the student is classified in one of the special education categories, the Individualized Education Plan (I.E.P.) team determines goals, objectives, services, and placement needed based on the results of psychological testing. In some cases, a conclusive classification is made. When reviewing the psychological report, the I.E.P. team has to determine the impact of the disability on the student’s ability to achieve at grade level.
To help understand the process, the scenarios below will be used to help determine the most appropriate environment for two different students. Both students attend middle school, and are educated in an inclusion environment for English and mathematics. The school does not offer a self-contained classroom for students other than those that meet the requirements for special programs, which are autistic or severely disabled. Psychologist use assessments that they feel more comfortable interpreting. Although the assessment may not be the most appropriate to indentify discrepancies. A different psychologist tested each student. Hence the differences in scores and assessment components used.
Student A has been identified as a student with a disability under the category of specific learning disability (SLD). Student A was administered the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a psychological assessment used to assess a range of cognitive abilities that represent a sample of what a person has learned and can use at the time of testing. These abilities reflect a person’s current ability to solve problems, think abstractly, deal with new situations, and profit from experience. The verbal cluster is a measure of verbal reasoning and knowledge of word meanings. The nonverbal composite consists of two clusters including spatial skills and nonverbal reasoning skills. Student A’s standard score (ss) was 108, nonverbal reasoning ss 86, and spatial ss 88. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement III (WJIII) was used to obtain Student A’s overall reading, written language, and math skills. The broad reading ss was 89. The areas assessed include: word reading, passage comprehension, and reading fluency. The broad math ss was 77, and include calculation, math fluency, and applied problems. The psychological report summary suggests that Student A has significant delays in the areas of written language and math.
Student B is also a student identified as a student with a disability under the classification of SLD. Student B was administered DAS. The nonverbal cluster was the only cluster administered due to strengths noted in nonverbal skills. Spatial cluster measures the ability to work under time constraints, while incorporating visual-perception-motor task and spatial orientation skills. Spatial cluster ss was 75. Spatial subtest scores were copying ss 82 and pattern construction ss 70. Student B’s skills fell within the below average to low range. The WJIII standard scores were: letter-word identification 18, calculation 47, spelling 28, passage comprehension 29, and applied problems 58. When academic achievement was compared to cognitive functioning, severe deficits were noted in the areas of reading, math, and written language. The psychological report summary states that Student B has extreme deficits in auditory processing and relative strengths in visual-perceptual-motor processing. Student B’s educational achievement scores are extremely deficient.
Making the Placement Decision
If found eligible for services, the I.E.P. team can use the results from the educational testing to consider placement options. A student can be placed in an inclusion or self-contained environment for academics. Inclusion is an approach to educating students with special education needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. A self-contained classroom is for special education students only would be considered LRE since the student can be placed in either at the zone school.
Although each student is classified under the same special education category, an analysis of the data shows different needs. Student A’s disability impacts the ability to perform in math and written language. Student B’s disability impacts the ability to perform in the academic areas of reading, math, and written language. Based on this information, the first step is to decide what goals and objectives to develop. Student A’s goals and objectives should focus on math and written language. Student B’s goals and objectives should focus on reading, math, and written language. The second step is to examine the value assigned to each area tested. Student A’s test scores show some discrepancies, but the student is not academically performing too far behind age appropriate peers. Student B’s test scores show major discrepancies, and the student is performing below average compared to age appropriate peers.
Based on a review of all the information provided, the suggestion is that Student A be educated in an inclusion class for math and written language. Since the student has the ability, and is performing at grade level, this environment will be beneficial. In the inclusion class, Student A can receive grade level instruction and support from the special education teacher. Specially designed instruction can be provided for Student A to help close the discrepancy gap, and provide the student with strategies to function in the regular education classroom.
On the other hand, Student B’s scores show that there is a need for extensive academic support. The student’s scores are very low indicating that the student does not have the foundation to perform academically at grade level. Based on the data, Student B should be educated in a self-contained environment. In a self-contained environment, Student B can receive instruction based on the student’s academic needs, not the grade level student. In this environment, material can be presented at the grade level in which the student is performing. An example would be spelling, which is not taught in middle school, but the student’s test scores suggest there is some. In a self-contained classroom, the instructor can teach spelling and any other lower level skills to provide the student with the foundation needed to succeed in the real world.
Determining the LRE for a student can be a difficult task. The team making the decision must be knowledgeable of the skills needed by the student to perform at the current grade level, analyzing psychological scores, and the benefits the educational setting will have for the student. It is important to understand that data interpretation can be based on the reviewer’s perception. It is essential that each team member provides input and that placement is a team decision.
Many schools use the inclusion model more rapidly, since all students are expected to take the end-of-year state assessment. Because all students have to be assessed, many educators feel that the most appropriate environment is inclusion, which allows the student to be introduced to the content information. Although the approach is most common, it is not always realistic. An educator cannot expect a student with limited foundation to perform at grade level. This placement does not benefit the student. Often times, the student becomes frustrated and begins to exhibit negative behaviors. Negative behaviors can be a result of not being able to perform academically.
Currently, many states have begun to change the expectations for students on state assessments. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has suggested that by 2014, 100 percent of students should pass English and math assessments at grade level. Some states have been granted waivers. The waivers allow states to use growth measures as a means of measuring success. This is beneficial to special education students because if a student is educated in a self-contained environment and assessed using the state assessment, the student only has to show progress.
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On April 9, 2013, Governor Martin O’Malley signed into law a bill that gives the Prince George’s County Executive new education governance powers. Effective June 1, 2013, County Executive Rushern Baker will have the power to appoint the Prince George’s County School Board superintendent, three members of the school board, and the board chair and vice-chair. In adopting this governance structure, Prince George’s County joins a growing number of large school systems that have moved from elected to executive-appointed school boards. Prominent examples include Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, and New York City.
What happens when an elected school board disappears? In a recent report published by the Center for American Progress, my co-author Kenneth Wong and I argued that mayoral governance in large urban school systems has, on average, generated academic improvement. But we also pointed out that the improvement is not consistent over time, or across grade levels and subject matters. This report was the most recent in a decade-long research project on the effects of executive-appointed school boards.
When an executive is given new powers in education governance, attention is often placed (and rightly so) on the nature of those powers. Conversation and headlines focus on who the executive will appoint as superintendent and board members. Something that often gets overlooked – and will be the focus of this short essay – is the extent to which the governance reform is permanent or contingent on performance and citizen approval.
Put another way, when an elected school board disappears, we should ask: will it ever re-emerge? The answer depends on how the state law is crafted. Below I review the range of options that states have employed, and situate the recent Maryland legislation within this framework.
States have four basic options for statutorily prescribing an “end game” to executive-appointed school boards. These options are:
Where does the new Maryland legislation fall on this spectrum? Let’s take a look at the actual language (which appears at the very end of the bill):
(b) On or before December 31, 2017, the County Executive, the Chief Executive Officer, and the Prince George's County Board of Education shall submit a final report on academic progress and improvement in the management of the Prince George's County public school system, and recommendations concerning the continuation, modification, or termination of the governance system established by this Act for the public school system, in accordance with § 2-1246 of the State Government Article, to the Senate Education, Health, and Environmental Affairs Committee, the House Committee on Ways and Means, the Prince George's County Senators, and the Prince George's County Delegation.
(c) During the 2018 regular legislative session, the General Assembly shall deliberate and determine whether the provisions of this Act shall be terminated and of no further force and effect. If the General Assembly does not take any action to terminate this Act, the provisions of this Act shall continue to be in full force and effect.
Read carefully, it seems that Maryland has adopted something in-between options #1 and #2: the governance reform will be permanent unless the 2017 report recommends otherwise and spurs the legislature to action. I have placed in boldface the final line of the bill, which should not be overlooked: unless the legislature acts, the default position is for the new governance structure to remain in place. Note too that there are not further stop-gaps, e.g. no requirement for a 10-year evaluation or county-wide referendum.
In short, unless a citizen-led effort to produce a referendum is successful, it’s unlikely that – other than voting for (or against) their state legislators and their county executive – the citizens of Prince George’s County will have no direct voice on this governance reform.
If I had been writing the legislation, I would have been supportive of creative governance innovation, but would have coupled it with two missing protections. First, I would have allowed for a county-wide referendum at five years, allowing citizens an effort to vote on retention of the reform. Not only does this provide a potential brake (if the vehicle of reform has veered off course), it also allows citizens to voice their support for the program (as they did in Boston and Cleveland). Such support can add to the executive’s political capital, and spur further innovations.
In addition to the referendum, I would have also added a sunset provision for ten years out. A decade of data and experience allows educational professionals and legislative experts an opportunity to carefully assess the added-value of the governance model. At that point, the legislature can consider whether the reform should be made permanent. Sunset provisions can generate policy reexamination and reinvention – both of which may be needed if the reform path in Prince George’s County follows that in other executive-led districts. Whether the goal is to reignite the system with a renewed vision, or to replace it with an alternative governance structure, the sunset provision provides policymakers with an opportunity to build on previous progress.
Maryland legislators did not choose to adopt either of these two provisions, so what is to be done? I recommend three things. First, legislators might revisit this bill in future legislative sessions and consider amending it to allow for more citizen input. Second, the governance team must strive to be as transparent as possible in explaining and executing its decisions. Third, students, parents, and citizens should be vigilant in making their voices heard and their perspectives considered.
Already we see such grass-roots opposition emerging in Prince George’s County. In Maryland, the legislation was opposed by members of the current school board, and currently efforts are underway by a group called Citizens for an Elected Board to place a referendum on the ballot in 2014 to return to an elected school board. This is similar to 2009 in New York when debate grew heavy over re-authorizing the law that gives the New York City mayoral school board appointive powers. In New York, while proponents of mayoral control touted improved student outcomes, groups such as the Grassroots Education Movement emphasized the need for transparency and citizen access.
In response to such criticism, executives posit a model of executive accountability. Discussing the bill, County Executive Baker reflected that, “They're giving me the ability to say to voters that come June 1, I will be accountable for education … If it does not improve, you know exactly where to go.” This is similar to the sentiment expressed over fifteen years ago by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino: “Mayor Daley and I share a very important philosophy. Neither one of us is willing to wash our hands of public education. We refuse to let our schools fall by the wayside and join the chorus of politicians saying the failure of the schools isn't their fault. No, Mayor Daley and I believe that when it comes to educating our kids, the buck stops in the mayor's office.”
The logic of executive-appointed boards is, as these quotes suggest, that accountability in the education sector is tied to electoral consequences: if you don’t like the way the executive is running the schools, then vote her/him out of office to show your displeasure. This logic, of course, is subject to a variety of criticisms, including the point that executives need not necessarily improve school performance, but merely make it appear that the schools are improving. Also, the mayor need only appease a majority of the electorate (which may be distinct from the citywide population because not all residents are registered and likely voters).
We don’t know what will happen in Prince George’s County in terms of future academic achievement and fiscal management, but we do know from the details of the legislation that executive-appointed school governance is here to stay unless legislators act again. Whether, and how, this new state legislative action occurs will depend on district performance and on the level of civic involvement from students, parents, and citizens. Without a formal avenue for changing the governance reform built into the law, grass-roots channels will become all the more important for maintaining accountability over time.
Author bio: Dr. Francis X. Shen is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Minnesota Law School. Dr. Shen conducts empirical and legal research in education and crime, with a focus on the intersection of law and neuroscience. He received his B.A. from the University of Chicago, his J.D. from Harvard Law School, and his Ph.D. from Harvard University. He was a doctoral fellow in the Harvard University Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality & Social Policy, supported by the National Science Foundation. Dr. Shen has published a number of articles on education governance, and co-authored The Education Mayor (2007, Georgetown Univ. Press). Additional information on his research can be found online at: www.fxshen.com
 Francis X. Shen, Community Support For Mayoral Control Of Urban School Districts: A Critical Reexamination, 44 Education and Urban Society 342 (2012).
 Joseph P. Viteritti, When Mayors Take Charge: School Governance in the City (2009, Brookings Institution Press).
 Emphasis added.
 Tracee Wilkins, Effort to Put Prince George's County Schools Changes on Ballot (May 3, 2013)
 ABC 7 News, Rushern Baker says school takeover bill is a 'good compromise' (April 8, 2013)
 Quoted in: Mike Brown, Boston: Daley, Menino Say Mayors Key to Better Public Schools, Press Release, The United States Conference of Mayors (1996).
 Francis X. Shen, Community Support For Mayoral Control Of Urban School Districts: A Critical Reexamination, 44 Education and Urban Society 342 (2012).
The difference between parenting young children and parenting tweens and teens, is The fact tat with older children we should "talk less and listen more." Your middle and high school-age daughters and sons have already heard pretty much everything you have to teach them. Hundreds and hundreds of times. By the time most kids reach preadolescence they start tuning out what their parents are saying. When we close our mouths and listen more to what our children are telling us, we have a golden opportunity to be re-introduced again and again, to the young adults our children are becoming.